¿Ha obstaculizado el discurso antimigración y antirrefugiados el progreso contra el trabajo infantil?

Simon Steyne
Resumen

La aplicación accidentada, desde 2000, de políticas integradas para erradicar las causas fundamentales interseccionales del trabajo infantil se sitúa más recientemente en un contexto político más amplio de recrudecimiento del etnonacionalismo populista acompañado de un respeto debilitado de los gobiernos de muchos países por el sistema internacional basado en reglas y desarrollo basado en derechos. El autor sugiere que (aparte de los intereses políticos y comerciales centrados en el norte), al combinar el trabajo forzoso con la trata y la trata con la migración y el asilo, gobiernos populistas-nacionalistas influyentes, en particular los del Reino Unido (vinculados al Brexit) y Australia (vinculados al “Proceso de Bali”), han contribuido a desviar la atención mundial de la mayor cohorte destinada a beneficiarse de la Meta 8.7 del Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible: los 160 millones de niños que ahora se encuentran en situación de trabajo infantil. Esta fusión busca demonizar a los solicitantes de asilo, refugiados y migrantes económicos. Además, es un elemento importante del discurso de los partidos gobernantes populistas-nacionalistas en su búsqueda de apoyo electoral continuo y refleja la voluntad de violar el derecho internacional que protege los derechos humanos.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Métricas

Cargando métricas ...

Detalles del artículo

Cómo citar
Steyne, S. (2022). ¿Ha obstaculizado el discurso antimigración y antirrefugiados el progreso contra el trabajo infantil?. Revista Tecnológica - ESPOL, 34(1), 113–135. https://doi.org/10.37815/rte.v34n1.856
Sección
Artículos

Citas

Biden, J. (2021, March 1). President Biden on Workers’ Rights to Organize and Unionize. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZpUD9KgYc4

Brecht, B. (1978). Die Stücke von Bertolt Brecht in einem Band. Suhrkamp.

David, M. E. & Moos, M. (Eds.). (2021) Debating the Zeitgeist and Being Second Generation. Valentine-Mitchell.

Davis, J. & and Hollis, A. (2018, October 12). Theresa May’s Brexit speech had shades of Hitler. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/oct/12/theresa-mays-brexit-speech-had-shades-of-hitler

Doherty, B. (2021, May 1). The Refugees torn from Loved ones by Australia’s ‘Cruel’ Family Separations. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2021/may/02/the-refugees-torn-from-loved-ones-by-australias-cruel-family-separations?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other.

Domarus, M. (1973) Hitler, Reden und Proklamationen 1932-1945. Pamminger & Partner https://archive.org/details/max-domarus-hitler-reden-und-proklamationen-1932-1945

FAO, IFAD, ILO & IUF. (2020). The International Partnership for Cooperation on Child Labour in Agriculture statement on the impact of COVID-19 on child labour in agriculture. Rome, FAO. https://doi.org/10.4060/ca9516en

Geary. (2016). Slaves and Social Protest in Brazil 1780-1850. https://essaydocs.org/slaves-and-social-protest-in-brazil-1780-1850-dick-geary-unive.html

Gelblum, B. (2019, March 8). Who won this epic stare off between Will Self and Tory Brexiteer Mark Francois? The London Economic.

Global Conference on Child Labour. (2013). Outcome document of the III Global Conference on Child Labour, Brasilia, 8-10 October 2013. (Brasilia Declaration on Child Labour). https://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_23480/lang--en/index.htm

Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour. (2017). Buenos Aires Declaration on Child Labour, Forced Labour and Youth Employment. 16 November 2017. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---ipec/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_597667.pdf

Government of the U.K. Employment Rights Act 1996. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1996/18/section/44

Grierson, J. & Marsh, S. (2021, March 24). UN refugee agency hits out at Priti Patel's plans for UK asylum overhaul. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2021/mar/24/priti-patel-defends-inhumane-overhaul-of-uk-asylum-system?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Home Office (U.K.) (2021, March 20). Alarming rise of abuse within modern slavery system. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/alarming-rise-of-abuse-within-modern-slavery-system

ILO. (2014). Follow-up to the Brasilia Declaration on Child Labour. ILO Governing Body 320th Session, Geneva, 13–27 March 2014. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_235401.pdf

ILO. (2010) ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and its Follow-Up, 18 June 1998 (Second edition with revised annex, 15 June 2010) https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_467653.pdf

ILO. (2016). Follow-up within the Office to the resolution concerning fundamental principles and rights at work adopted by the 101st Session of the International Labour Conference (2012). Governing Body 328th Session 27 October–10 November 2016. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_531682.pdf

ILO. (2017). Ending child labour by 2025: A review of policies and programmes. International Labour Office (ILO), Geneva, 2017. https://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=29875

ILO. (2018a). Ending child labour by 2025: A review of policies and programmes. Second edition. International Labour Office (ILO), Geneva, 2018. https://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_653987/lang--en/index.htm

ILO. (2018b). Resolution to amend the 18th ICLS Resolution concerning statistics of child labour. 20th International Conference of Labour Statisticians Geneva, 10-19 October 2018. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_667558.pdf

ILO. (2019). CEACR Observation: Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138), Bolivia. Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3956605

ILO. (2020). Covid-19 Impact on Child Labour and Forced Labour: The Response of the IPEC+ Flagship Programme. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---ipec/documents/publication/wcms_745287.pdf

ILO. (2021). 2021 International Year for the Elimination of Child Labour. https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/child-labor/int-year/lang--en/index.htm

ILO. (n.d.). Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work Branch. https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/how-the-ilo-works/departments-and-offices/governance/fprw/lang--en/index.htmt

ILO & UNICEF. (2021). Child Labour: Global estimates 2020, trends and the road forward. International Labour Office and United Nations Children’s Fund. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_norm/@ipec/documents/publication/wcms_797515.pdf

ILO. (1973). ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138). https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO:12100:P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312283:NO

ILO. (1999). ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182). https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO:12100:P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312327:NO

ILO-IPEC. (2013). Good practices and lessons learned - Converging against child labour: Support for India's model. International Labour Organization, ILO International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC); ILO DWT for South Asia and ILO Country Office for India – New Delhi: ILO, 2013. https://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_23895/lang--en/index.htm

IMO-UNHCR-ICS. (2015). Rescue at Sea: A Guide to Principles and Practice as applied to Refugees and Migrants. The International Maritime Organization - The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees- The International Chamber of Shipping. https://www.unhcr.org/450037d34.pdf 2015

Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants. (n.d.). Windrush scandal explained. https://www.jcwi.org.uk/windrush-scandal-explained

Karlsson O, (2018 October 10) Historiker kritisieren auf fragwürdige Weise Gauland-Artikel in FAZ. Berliner Tageszeitung. https://www.berlinertageszeitung.de/politik/24017-historiker-sehen-parallelen-zwischen-gauland-artikel-in-der-faz-und-hitler-rede.html

Kershaw, I. (1999). Hitler 1889-1936 Hubris. W. W. Norton & Company.

Kershaw, I. (2001). Hitler: 1936-1945 Nemesis (Allen Lane History S.) W. W. Norton & Company.

Kneebone, S. (2017). Australia as a powerbroker on refugee protection in Southeast Asia: the relationship with Indonesia. The Free Library. Retrieved Dec 15 2021 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Australia+as+a+powerbroker+on+refugee+protection+in+Southeast+Asia%3a...-a0491909268

McVeigh, K. (2021, May 8). UK aid cuts will put tens of thousands of children at risk of famine, says charity. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2021/may/08/uk-aid-cuts-will-put-tens-of-thousands-of-children-at-risk-of-famine-says-charity?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Merrick, R. (2017, July 5). Theresa May speech 'could have been taken out of Mein Kampf', Vince Cable says. The Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/theresa-may-mein-kampf-adolf-hitler-nazi-vince-cable-liberal-democrat-conservatives-a7825381.html

Peters G. and Woolley J. the American Presidency Project (2009) Barack Obama, statement on World Day against Child Labour (and quoted in a letter from Secretary of Labor, Hilda Solis, June 2009, in possession of Peters). https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/documents/statement-world-day-against-child-labor-0

Refugee Council. (2021, November 17). New Refugee Council analysis shows most people arriving by small boats across the Channel are likely be fleeing persecution. https://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/latest/news/new-refugee-council-analysis-shows-most-people-arriving-by-small-boats-across-the-channel-are-likely-be-fleeing-persecution/

Røsæg, E. (2020). The Duty to Rescue Refugees and Migrants at Sea. University of Oxford. https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/research-subject-groups/centre-criminology/centreborder-criminologies/blog/2020/03/duty-rescue

Siddique, H. (2021, November 17). New bill quietly gives powers to remove British citizenship without notice. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2021/nov/17/new-bill-quietly-gives-powers-to-remove-british-citizenship-without-notice?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Syal, R. (2021, October 12). Priti Patel’s borders bill ‘breaches international and domestic law’. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/oct/12/priti-patel-borders-bill-breaches-law-human-rights?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Syal, R. (2021b, November 14). Union considers legal action over Channel refugee ‘pushbacks’. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2021/nov/14/union-considers-legal-action-over-channel-refugee-pushbacks

Taylor, D. (2021, June 3). Calls to close Napier barracks after asylum seekers win legal case. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2021/jun/03/napier-barracks-asylum-seekers-win-legal-challenge-against-government

Taylor, D. (2021a, May 6). Judge criticises Priti Patel over policy for asylum seekers in pandemic. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2021/may/06/judge-criticises-priti-patel-over-evictions-of-asylum-seekers-in-pandemic?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

The Spectator (2016, October 5) Full text: Theresa may’s conference speech. https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/full-text-theresa-may-s-conference-speech

Townsend, M. (2021a, July 18). Priti Patel ‘misled’ MPs over plans for protest crackdown. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2021/jul/18/priti-patel-misled-mps-over-plans-for-protest-crackdown?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Townsend, M. (2021a, May 9). EU countries snub Priti Patel’s plans to return asylum seekers. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2021/may/09/eu-countries-snub-priti-patels-plans-to-return-asylum-seekers?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Townsend, M. (2021b, November 20). Home Office ‘covering up’ its own study of why refugees come to the UK. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2021/nov/20/home-office-covering-up-its-own-study-of-why-refugees-come-to-the-uk

Trilling, D. (2021, November 30). Draconian border security doesn’t work and costs lives. Why is Britain pushing it? The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2021/nov/30/channel-crossings-british-politicians-smuggling-migration

United Nations (2015) Transforming our world: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development A/Res/70/1. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf

UN Digital Library (2018). Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly: Voting Summary. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/1656414